How do you cite textual evidence
Quoting correctly with the Harvard Style (quoting in the text)
This describes how the Harvard Style citation, which is very popular in English-speaking countries and social scientists, is correctly applied. In the text, only enter the author's last name, the year and the page number in brackets. You must provide complete evidence in the bibliography. This is usually organized in alphabetical order. Starting with the author's last name from A for Altmeyer to Z for Zuse.
|Quote from a book in the text||In the bibliography at least|
|(Schneidermeyer 2011, p. 12)|
or (Schneidermeyer 2011: 12)
|Schneidermeyer Peter, The Customs of Bavarian Brewmasters, 4th edition, Munich 2011|
Whether the edition has to be mentioned in the bibliography depends on your university. Most universities require this.
Important tip for correct citations
At the beginning, get hold of the rules for a term paper, bachelor thesis or master thesis, which at Of their University or your chair apply. There are often individual deviations from Harvard Style (the most common way of citing) or personal preferences of the chair holder. It is important that you do not follow different specifications, but only one set of rules, i.e. design your elaboration in a uniform manner: e.g. B. not first a footnote for a source reference, then a reference in the text and finally at the end of the work under consecutive numbers.
Special cases when quoting
There are many special cases when quoting. For example, if two authors wrote a book together, both must be mentioned in the quote. A text from a newspaper is quoted / documented differently than a book. There are different rules for online sources. There are also exceptions to some rules. We have presented these citation rules once as a PDF in an overview.
Quoting in the term paper, bachelor thesis or master thesis
Quoting correctly is sometimes tedious, labor-intensive and seems annoying. But put yourself in the other side, that of the reader or your examiner. Without the reference to the origin of the quoted thought in the original, the reader cannot tell whether it is yours or someone else's.
Example:You have read some of the key arguments for your bachelor thesis in a specialist book and reflect this in your work. This is quite common. If you do not name the author / idea generator here by quoting (or a corresponding reference to the literature with 'cf.'), your examiner is facing a problem because he may not be able to tell whether the brilliant idea came from you or whether it was 'stolen' is.
How do examiners / professors check the citations?
When evaluating z. B. a bachelor thesis the examiner will review individual quotations. It regularly says in expert reports “The quotations and sources were checked on a random basis. The page references and the names of the authors are partly incomplete. "
Your examiner may also check that you have correctly reproduced the context of the quotation. Perhaps he will read an interesting book that he first found in your work. He will go on a search, with a little luck - or if you have quoted correctly - he will find the original text in a database or in the electronic library. But if you didn't quote correctly, he'll need a lot of luck or, in the worst case, he won't be out of luck because you even got the year of publication wrong. Then there is no verifiability.
What happens if I leave out quotations?
To forget to prove a quote once is human. We are all not robots. You will likely get a small penalty on the grade and your examiner will think you did a little sloppy work under time pressure. However, if you have copied pages or used "copy & paste", the examiner will notice. With the change of author, the style of language also changes. Perhaps he notices that a section of text is suddenly worded more elegantly, or he notices that he has read the content before. In the case of a bachelor thesis or master thesis created with “copy & paste”, the examiner will award a “not passed” grade. It is questionable whether you will be allowed to write a second paper in this case.
Correct citation is about verifiability, e.g. B. the author, the context or the correct rendering. Especially with student work such as a term paper or the bachelor thesis, the author is not expected to find something completely new. In this respect, you are diligently looking for literature and you are happy to use the ideas it contains - but: Make sure you quote the authors of these works correctly!
We wish you every success.
This article under the patronage of Dr. Volker Manz comes from the pen of Ms. Dorothea Hämer (diploma social pedagogue, Magister Artium educational and social sciences). She was between 1993 to 2011 Lecturer at the Fernuni Hagen and has been working for studi-lektor.de for several years.
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