How were engravings removed in the 19th century

How to deal with solid ceilings from the 19th and 20th centuries

From around 1895 stone iron ceilings became increasingly important in the German Empire as a light, easy-to-manufacture and economical ceiling solution, especially in residential and commercial building construction [3]. For a long time they were superior to the concrete ceilings developed at the same time, demonstrated a greater diversity due to the many different systems and were much more widespread at the time. Probably the most famous stone iron ceiling today is the Kleinesche ceiling (patent pending in 1892 by Johann Franz Kleine (see Fig. 7)), which contributed significantly to the spread of stone iron ceilings in Germany. The stones (perforated stones, alluvial stones or solid bricks) were walled up on edge or flat on formwork; flat iron was inserted for reinforcement. Immediately after Kleine was granted the patent for his blanket, there were disputes and similar developments emerged. Some of the ceiling variants were only used for a few years, others for a decade or two. The Kleinesche ceiling remained unmatched in its distribution and stands for the success of the stone iron ceiling at that time. Like the cap ceiling, it was an important stage in the solid ceiling on the long way from the vault to the reinforced concrete ceiling. •


[1] Ahnert, Rudolf, and Karl Heinz Krause, Typical building constructions from 1860 to 1960 for assessing the existing building fabric, Volume 2, 7th reviewed and corrected edition, Huss Medien GmbH, Berlin, 2009.
In the book in chapter "2.2 Vaulted solid ceilings", among other things, contain several tables with information on the maximum spans for Prussian caps, from which the load-bearing capacity of the found cap roofs can be estimated. In Chapter 3, a ceiling register contains information on the sources for a selection of wooden beam (45) and solid ceilings (300).
[2] Regulations of the German Committee for Reinforced Concrete, edition 1925, parts A (execution of structures made of reinforced concrete), B (execution of flat stone ceilings) and C (execution of structures made of concrete)
[3] Fischer, Michael, stone iron ceilings in the German Empire, 1892-1925, dissertation, urn: nbn: de: kobv: co1-opus-7812, http://opus.kobv.de/btu/volltexte/2009/781/
[4] Mark, Robert (ed.), From the foundation to the vaulted ceiling, large buildings and their construction from antiquity to the Renaissance, Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, 1995
[5] Sachse, Hans-Joachim, Baroque roofs, ceilings and vaults, On building history and building construction in southern Germany, Gebr. Mann Verlag, Berlin, 1975

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