How did the Husserl phenomenology influence contemporary existentialism?


Husserl, Edmund, 1859-1938, born philosopher in Moravia (today in the Czech Republic), studied natural sciences, mathematics and philosophy at the universities of Leipzig, Berlin and Vienna, among others with Carl Stumpf and Franz Brentano. He wrote his dissertation on the calculus of variations. In 1887 he completed his habilitation at the University of Halle, where he worked as a lecturer in philosophy. In the same year he converted from the Jewish to the Lutheran faith. In 1901 he became a professor in Göttingen, from 1916 he taught in Freiburg until his retirement. In the Third Reich he had to withdraw from public scientific work. With his "Logical Investigations" (1901) and the "Ideas for a Pure Phenomenology" (1913) he became the founder of the "phenomenological philosophy". He emphasized the existence of a priori logical laws independent of any experience and placed the psychic as a phenomenon on the physical He took the view that the task of the philosopher was to contemplate the essence of things and showed that consciousness is always directed towards something, and that consciousness contains ideal, unchanging structures and meanings that determine what matter the mind directs itself at any given time. This directed being he called "intentionality." In his probably most influential work, "Ideas for a Pure Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy" (1913), he introduced the concept of "phenomenological reduction" for his own A method of reflecting on the meanings the mind puts in something when he looks at her. The question of the real existence of the thing under consideration is of no interest here. He also dealt with the analysis of the mental structures involved in the perception of objects. For example, he gave a detailed description of his perception of the apple tree in his garden. According to Husserl, the aim and purpose of phenomenology is not the development of theories, but the description of things themselves. Husserl's phenomenology had a fruitful effect on contemporary philosophy (above all on the philosophy of his student Martin Heidegger) as well as on psychology (Ludwig Binswanger, Alexander Pfänder). Also Jean-Paul Sartre and French existentialism were influenced by it.