Why did early humans make stone weapons?
Paleolithic (Paleolithic, 800,000-9,000 BC)
Like the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, the Paleolithic is part of European prehistory. These epoch names refer to the raw materials of the tools used by the people of that time. By classifying tool finds based on the raw materials from which they were made, archaeologists can immediately make a rough date. The division of the epochs was further subdivided over time. In general, the prehistory is based on the period between 800,000 BC. Dated to the birth of Christ. There was no written culture in prehistory, which is why there are no written sources from this period today.
Historically speaking, early history in Europe began with the end of the Iron Age. It was only from this time that written sources emerged, e. B. "De bello Gallico" by Caesar.
The Stone Age was named after its most important material: the fissile stone. The Paleolithic represents the longest period in human history. The first bone finds of earlier human species such as Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis can be found in it.
The early people of this time began to consciously shape the stone into a tool to work with other raw materials such as wood and bones. Weapons such as clubs, hatchets and points were later made with stone.
Stone Age people lived together in hordes and lived in caves, huts, tents or under rock roofs. In addition to weapons, they used pitfalls and cages for hunting.
Various examples can be cited as the earliest human traces in today's Ruhr area. The “Vogelheimer Klinge” was found in Essen-Vogelheim in 1926 and, with an estimated age of 300,000 years, is considered the earliest evidence of people in the region. It is assigned to a resting place of early Neanderthals.
Archaeologists also found traces of a Neanderthal camp in Bottrop in 1963, which dates back to around 80,000 BC. Was dated. Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis) were hunters and gatherers who lived in communities. They made tools, weapons and other objects from stone, bones and reindeer antlers.
The Paleolithic people mostly camped on rivers to ensure the water supply. Most of the evidence of human existence comes from warm periods. But science has also been able to date some human remains to cold spells, which were more common in the Paleolithic. In the cold, people had to survive long winters, in particular the fire and accommodation in a suitable and sheltered dwelling were essential for survival. The Stone Age people mostly only lived in caves in summer, as they were cool and protected from the summer heat. Otherwise, people preferred self-made camps made of tents.
Early references to humans were also found in the Emschertal. In Herne, numerous discoveries during the construction of the Rhine-Herne Canal in 1911 indicated a Neanderthal camp. In addition to human stone tools, the bones of woolly rhinos, bison and mammoths were also found here.
Today's Homo sapiens appeared after the Neanderthals. Perhaps both forms of human existence coexisted for a certain time. The relationship between Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens has not yet been precisely clarified. Science pursues different theories with regard to the degree of relationship, simultaneous existence and the same habitat of the two human forms. Ultimately, the Neanderthals could not prevail against Homo sapiens. Homo sapiens came to Europe in the final phase of the Paleolithic and has been the only living form of the genus "Homo" ever since.
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