Which animal image is based on movement

Animal Anatomy Atlas - Canine Myology

Animal anatomy is a broad scientific discipline that encompasses a multitude of aspects, such as the histological anatomy of the tissue, the functional anatomy for modeling movements or the radiological anatomy based on MRI examinations in the brain. Plus, all of these aspects need to be multiplied by millions of different species! The multiple facets of Veterinary Anatomy mean that the Anatomy Atlas must focus on a particular species with a particular specific type of anatomy and for a defined audience. In this article, we describe how we developed a macroscopic anatomical module that deals with canine myology using 2D representations and is aimed at veterinary students.

Animal anatomy: a tedious learning process

Myology is the study of muscles and muscle function, while osteology is the scientific study of the bones. These two branches are closely related because the muscles are mainly attached to bone structures and allow the bones to move around the joints. For this reason we often speak of the "musculoskeletal" system. Osteology and Myology are demanding topics that require a high level of accuracyto identify and describe the differences between the different species, taking into account the many complex and sometimes subtle differences between them. Furthermore, comparative anatomy in animal anatomy is the study of the similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species to reveal the evolutionary relationships between different biological species. It makes it easier to learn and better understand living organisms: given this complexity, the simplicity and clarity of an illustration is a very useful tool.
An illustrated anatomy includes not only illustrations, but also those Conveying knowledge and understanding.

At the moment IMAIOS is in the process of developing a module for Dog myology to complete all of the existing modules in our vertebrate anatomy atlas.

What working methods are used in the development and construction of this new module on animal anatomy?
Gauthier Kervyn, illustrator and anatomist, makes a detailed statement: “First, there is a lot of documentation about what already exists and what we are relying on. In fact, multiple sources are checked to ensure the best possible reliability "1. The main strength of animal anatomy is that it is based on scanned medical animal images. You start with a DICOM file (transferred by AzurVet - Delphine Rault), from which you extract a 3D file, which can then be positioned, illuminated and used as a template for 2D illustrations. “This process is really innovative and guarantees complete osteological accuracy". The muscles are then extracted from this 3D model, which is based on a real live animal.

Which animals did you use as reference for the CT scan?
The CT scans were performed under general anesthesia on live dogs with no musculoskeletal pathology. Most of the time, the scans were actually done for another medical reason, in order not to irradiate animals without a valid reason. We then asked the pet owners for their consent to use the images as anatomical reference.

From these 3D references, the scientific illustrator reviews anatomical patterns and dissection images to design an original 2D representation to obtain a clear and anatomically accurate picture of body parts or specific muscles.

Another innovative point: the color mode, which facilitates the identification of muscles across different anatomical views and display methods (external view, cross-sectional and muscle insertion on the bone) and at the same time offers an opening for the functional anatomy. The colors are chosen so that they provide information about muscle activity in relation to the 3 anatomical reference axes:
- antero-posterior (green) for abduction / adduction movements
- medio-lateral (red) for bending / stretching movements
- vertical (blue) for axial rotary movements

This module includes illustrations of the isolated muscle, the muscle in cross-section and progressive dissection images to take into account the relationships between the various muscles and muscle attachments (where the muscle is attached to the bone). This module is very extensive (over 600 images!) And offers an average of 3 or 4 views (lateral, medial, cranial and caudal + lateral, dorsal and ventral).

The anatomical images of the dog's myology are then organized logically and pedagogically, making them a digital reference for veterinary students. The advantage of this digital approach lies in the possibility of taking many more pictures than in a printed book and thus treating muscles and their inserts in isolation from different perspectives. A printed paper atlas could not have this approach for practical and financial reasons (printing costs, volume emissions).

In the short and medium term, the aim of our animal anatomy atlas is to provide a comprehensive tool for the macroscopic anatomy and radiological anatomy of pets (dogs, cats, horses, cattle).
The other good news is that a module is being designed from Illustrations of Bovine Osteology, but after reading this article you will understand that you need to be patient because realizing a module is so long and complex!

In the meantime, check out the anatomy modules illustrated:


1 Reference: Robert Barone 'Anatomie comparée des mammifères domestiques' (subtitle of volume 1: 'ostéologie', subtitle of volume 2: 'arthrologie et myologie') and Miller's Anatomy of the dog

Reference: ‘Anatomy of the dog’ by Klaus-Dieter Budras, Patrick H. McCarthy, Wolfgang Fricke and Renate Richter

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